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Electrical Characterization

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1: Electrical characterization of a test-structure on a semi-automatic wafer probe station using RF-probes

The characterization of materials, devices and circuits is unimaginable without electrical measurements. NaMLab has a broad spectrum of electrical measurement techniques and analysis methods for device characterization. This includes capacity measurements, such as C(V), C(T) and C(f), current measurements with femto-ampere resolution at temperatures between 5 K and 450 K and voltages up to 3000 V. Samples can be analyzed by direct probing on wafer level using single probes, probe cards or special RF-probes. Package level testing can be performed for long-term reliability characterization. In addition, carrier lifetime measurements are available on substrates with Microwave Detected Photoconductivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2:  Measured distribution of the low-VT (red) and high-VT (blue) memory states after 100 and 104 bipolar stress cycles of an 64 kbit FeFET  memory array.




The established methods at NaMLab include:

  • Analysis of single memory cells (memory window, retention, endurance, …) by static and pulsed measurements
  • Determination of transistor and capacitor characteristic curves  by C(V) and I(V) measurements  
  • Determination of sheet resistance for thin layers.
  • Determination of doping profiles by scanning spreading resistance Microscopy (SSRM)
  • Reliability characterization of dielectric and transistors
  • Defect characterization by charge pumping and charge trapping  analysis and defect spectroscopy
  • Measurement of charge carrier mobility with Hall and split-C(V)
  • Pulsed and high frequency measurements
  • Power device characterization
Fig. 3
Fig. 3: Full automatic electrical characterization setup for combined DC-stress and S-parameter measurement for RF-FOM assessment of devices subject to DC stress.


Throughout the development program of the ferroelectric FET (FeFET) eNVM program special characterization techniques for the statistical in-depth characterization of FeFET switching kinetics and memory reliability was set up. Automatic memory array characterization and data analysis can be performed (Fig. 2). A combined control of test arrays by digital addressing of single cells together with analog measurements of I(V) characteristics of single cells within the memory arrays allows the differentiation between intrinsic effects of the memory cells itself and extrinsic influences originating of the embedment of the memory cells into a logic circuitry.

The fully automatic control of our electrical characterization equipment was extended to include RF characterization methods. In that way it is possible to assess the RF figures of merit (FOM) of devices subject to stress. Detailed analysis and modeling of RFFOM degradation becomes increasingly important for high performance technologies.


Contact: Dr. Stefan Slesazeck


NaMLab gGmbH
Nöthnitzer Str. 64 a
01187 Dresden

Tel. +49.351.21.24.990-00
Fax. +49.351.475.83.900




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